The Children’s Hospitals Neonatal Consortium is a multicenter collaboration of leaders from 27 regional neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) who partnered with the Children’s Hospital Association to develop the Children’s Hospitals Neonatal Database (CHND), launched in 2010. The purpose of this report is to provide a first summary of the population of infants cared for in these NICUs, including representative diagnoses and short-term outcomes, as well as to characterize the participating NICUs and institutions. During the first 2 1/2 years of data collection, 40910 infants were eligible. Few were born inside these hospitals (2.8%) and the median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks. Surgical intervention (32%) was common; however, mortality (5.6%) was infrequent. Initial queries into diagnosis-specific inter-center variation in care practices and short-term outcomes, including length of stay, showed striking differences. The CHND provides a contemporary, national benchmark of short-term outcomes for infants with uncommon neonatal illnesses. These data will be valuable in counseling families and for conducting observational studies, clinical trials and collaborative quality improvement initiatives.